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The thyroid and its diseases

The thyroid and its diseases

The thyroid gland produces and stores hormones essential for the functioning of every cell in the body: help regulate heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, the rate at which food is converted into energy, and support child growth and development.

There are different thyroid diseases with different symptoms. For example, an overactive thyroid can cause a person to feel nervous or anxious and have unexpected weight loss, hyperthyroidism; while an underactive thyroid causes hypothyroidism, which can manifest as tiredness, depression and weight gain. Other thyroid disorders can cause a swelling or goitre and even thyroid cancer.

In addition, we now have a specific treatment for the elimination of the thyroid nodules without surgery, by means of Molecular Hyperthermia. Through ultrasound we can see the evolution after six treatment sessions and the result is excellent without the need for surgery.

At Biosalud Day Hospital we treat these thyroid diseases from their origin, looking for the cause of this irregular functioning of the gland and their hormone production. From there, we design personalised treatments that will restore the patient's health.

Thyroid hormones

The two most important thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), which is produced by the pituitary gland, acts to stimulate the production of hormones by the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland also makes the hormone calcitonin, which is involved in calcium metabolism and the stimulation of bone cells to add calcium to bone. WATCH VIDEO.

Thyroid diseases


There are different types of hyperthyroidism, all of which are caused by a overproduction of thyroid hormones:

  • Graves-Basedow disease. It is an autoimmune disease and the most common cause of an overactive thyroid gland. WATCH VIDEO
  • Toxic adenomas. The nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete thyroid hormones, upsetting the body's chemical balance. Some goitres may contain several of these nodules.
  • Subacute thyroiditis. Inflammation of the thyroid causes the gland to produce excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism. The condition usually lasts for a couple of weeks, but can persist for months.
  • Pituitary gland malfunctioning or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland, can lead to hyperthyroidism.


Causes of hypothyroidism include:

  • The Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Autoimmune disease where the immune system itself attacks thyroid tissue, leading to decreased thyroid hormone production.
  • The elimination of the thyroid gland. The thyroid can be surgically removed or chemically destroyed as a treatment for hyperthyroidism.
  • The exposure to excessive amounts of iodide. Cold and sinus medications, Amiodarone heart medications, or certain contrast dyes given before x-rays, can expose you to excess iodine. After exposure to these, you may have an increased risk of developing hypothyroidism, especially if you have had thyroid problems in the past.

Thyroid nodules

Biosalud is the only clinic in Spain that has the necessary technology for the resorption of thyroid nodules without surgery, by means of Molecular Hyperthermia. WATCH VIDEO

Thyroid cancer

Cancer of the thyroid gland is a rare disease, occurring in less than 10% of thyroid nodules. We may have one or more thyroid nodules for several years before they are determined to be cancerous. People who have received radiation treatment to the head and neck at a young age tend to be more likely to develop thyroid cancer.

Regenerative treatment of hypothyroidism

Thyroid regeneration

At Biosalud Day Hospital we carry out regenerative medicine treatments for hypothyroidism, as we can recover tissues damaged by illnesses such as hypothyroidism. Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

Mariano Bueno

Dr. Mariano Bueno and his team

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